UKTC Archive

RE: Ganoderma applanatum/australe on n.maple - implications

Subject: RE: Ganoderma applanatum/australe on n.maple - implications
From: David Lonsdale
Date: Dec 22 2011 12:58:28
I forgot to comment on Fomitopsis pinicola, Gerrit.  Its apparent absence as 
a native of the UK is interesting, since we might have expected it to occur 
on Pinus sylvestris, at least in Scotland.  One of my colleagues found it 
growing on a fence-post in his garden in the 1990s, but the timber had 
probably been imported.  Like you, I have seen it on broadleaved hosts such 
as beech on the continent; for example in Germany. With regard to other brown 
rot fungi on beech (apart from Coniophora), there are some UK records of 
Laetiporus sulphureus.

If anyone on UKTC has seen F. pinicola on living trees in the UK, this would 
be interesting and it might answer your question about the "stepping stone" 

Kind regards,

-----Original Message-----
From: David Lonsdale []
Sent: 22 December 2011 12:18
To: UK Tree Care
Subject: RE: Ganoderma applanatum/australe on n.maple - implications

Dear Gerrit,

With apologies to Richard Fletcher (since we have strayed far from his 
original query), I thank you for sending the link to the Dutch-language 
definitions in Neth. J. P1. Path. 74 (1968) 65-84.  I speak even less Dutch 
than David Evans, and so I used "Babelfish" to produce some very crude 
translations into English.  This crude translation for "biotroof" is as 

biotroof - food withdrawing to live parts of a host.

I think that this simply means that the parasite is obtaining its food from 
living tissues.  This is okay as a literal translation of the original Greek: 
"bios" = life / "trophe" = food.  I do not, however, think that this 
definition is precise enough to distinguish between a biotroph and a 
necrotroph (just as you implied in your previous message).

In  Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi (8th edition, CAB 
International), the definition of biotroph is as follows:

"Biotroph: an obligate parasite growing on another organism, in intimate 
association with its cytoplasm."

I think that the Ainsworth & Bisby definition means almost the same as the 
one that I wrote yesterday.   I did not, however, use the word "obligate" 
(meaning that the parasite can grow only on the living host; not on a 
non-living culture medium), because I am aware of a few rust fungi (for 
example) that have been grown on artificial media, with great skill and 
difficulty.   On the other hand, it is quite useful to use the word 
'obligate', since this clearly shows that wood decay fungi cannot be 
biotrophic according to the strict definition. They must either be 
necrotrophic parasites (if they invade and kill living tissues) or 
saprotrophs (if they grow only in tissues that are already dead).

I was not very successful when I tried to use Babelfish to translate the 
Dutch definition of "necrotroph". I did, however see the words "dead plant 
cells".  It also seemed to say that a necrotrophic parasite can live 
alternatively as a saprotroph.  This all seems to agree with the definition 
that I sent yesterday, except that there is an important difference between a 
necrotroph parasite and a saproptroph.  Only the former kills the host cells 
before it uses them as a food source.

The Ainsworth & Bisby definition of necrotroph is as follows:

"Necrotroph: a parasite that derives its energy from dead cells of the host 
[from Thrower (1966). Phytopath Z., 56: 258.]"

Kind regards,

PS. Is the spelling correct in the Dutch-language definition of "necrotoof"?  
 In my ignorance as a non-Dutch speaker, I would have guessed that it should 
be spelt with an "r": "necrotroof".

-----Original Message-----
From: Viper Snake []
Sent: 22 December 2011 08:43
To: UK Tree Care
Subject: RE: Ganoderma applanatum/australe on n.maple - implications

Dear David,
I use the definitions from this list (in Dutch) ( ) and to add some more 
information on the subject of tree species specific strategies of parasitic 
macrofungi being part of and co-evolved within a tree species specific 
ecosystem (Keizer, 2007/2011), the following on the tree species colonised by 
Fomitopsis pinicola on the European continent.
Originally Fomitopsis pinicola was only found on coniferous trees, mostly on 
Picea and Pinus. In 1982, I found it on a Betula trunk in a spruce forest 
invested with F. pinicola in Luxemburg. Some years later, I documented F. 
pinicola from old beeches in Luxemburg and Belgium and later on also in 
Germany (Eifel). In Poland it is mainly found on roadside Acer, on which I 
also found it this year along a riverside in Austria (see : ). In Sweden, where it is 
common on coniferous trees, and Germany (Bavaria), I found it on Prunus.
In The Netherlands, it first was found on Picea and nowadays it is mostly on 
Betula and Fagus and twice on Quercus robur. As Laetiporus sulphureus has not 
(yet) been documented from beech in The Netherlands, F. pinicola, apart from 
some saprotrophic Coniophora species, is the only macrofungus causing brown 
rot in Fagus.
So I wonder what tree species F. pinicola will use as first and secondary 
"stepping stones" once it starts invading the U.K. (entirely).

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