UKTC Archive

RE: Ganoderma applanatum/australe on n.maple - implications

Subject: RE: Ganoderma applanatum/australe on n.maple - implications
From: Viper Snake
Date: Dec 22 2011 13:05:39

Hi David,


1) So, in the English speaking world you're not claiming G. 
adspersum/australe is a biotrophic parasite with pathology definitions as we 
understand them. Can you please let us know what the continental definition 
of a biotrophic parasite is ?
1) A biotrophic parasitic macrofungus extracts its nutrients/energy from 
living parts/tissue/cells of a plant or tree, it can't live on - and 
especially not reproduce or fruit from - dead wood/tissue alone.

2) I'm familiar with Francis Schwarze's research into G. adspersum/australe 
and raised the in vitro 'v' in vivo limitations of it with Tony when he first 
appeared on here speaking in tongues and prophetically warning us we could 
all end up in court if we didn't believe him and act on what 'a beast G. 
australe' was. Given the stringent in vitro conditions that Francis used - 
sterilised 1cm blocks of wood sealed in paraffin and incubated with fungus 
and no competition - though interesting, I saw nothing from the research, or 
in the field, that would lead me to believe G. adspersum/australe was a 
biotrophic parasite.
2) In my definition of being a biotrophic parasite, G. australe differs from 
G. lipsiense in that G. australe panic fruits with (partially) sterile lumpy 
FB's just before or shortly after the tree dies, where G. lipsiense keeps on 
developing normal FB's until long after the tree (beech) dies.
3. When I was looking Ganodermas back in the mid 1990s it was using mycelium 
to identify them in the laboratory. I appreciate distinguishing between G. 
adspersum/australe and G. applanatum/lipsiense is fraught with difficulty in 
the field with macroscopic features. IIRC one of the macroscopic features 
that might help distinguish between them was that G. adspersum/australe 
tended to have much thicker flesh to pore ratios and the flesh was often a 
darker chocolate brown, but this would be caveated and may have been down to 
the locality of Durham, where I was looking at this. I don't know whether 
it's the same in your patch, or whether other UKTCers have any observations 
about this feature.
3. IME the only macroscopic feature that seperates G. lipsiense from G. 
australe is the presence of Agathomyia wankowiczi, and even then I always do 
a quick scan on the spores to be sure, the gall fly really knows the 
4. I've not been overly concerned about distinguishing between the 
identification of the two Ganodermas because I've not seen anything 
published, or in the field, that has persuaded me that there's a significant 
difference between how they affect the stability of a tree. So I look forward 
to seeing your research being published. Apart from the Ganodermas, this is 
the bit (below) that particularly interests me because it's contrary to my 
present understanding about the substantial constraints that functional 
living xylem has on colonisation by such decay fungi.
4. Apart from the "famous" Anne Frank tree, I have lots of documentation on 
the detrimental effects of G. australe on the stability of Acer 
(saccharinum), Aesculus, Tilia, Populus, Salix and Quercus rubra on the 
continent, which is in contrast with the far less detrimental effects on 
tannin (and thyll) rich wood of Quercus robur, Q. petrea and Castanea sativa, 
on which Fistulina hepatica specialises as part of the tree species specific 
ecosystem (© G.J. Keizer (2012), De verborgen boom (= The hidden tree)) and 
the life cycles of these tree species.

5. are you also the source of 'panic fruiting' that Tony also brought to the 
UK ?
5. Yes and no, it's a translation from the German terms 
"Panik-Fruktifizierung" and "Armuts-Runzel-Knolle" introduced by Claus 
Mattheck in "Taschenbuch der Holzfäulen im Baum" (2001), the book I reviewed 
the manuscript of before it was published, after I showed Mattheck various 
examples of what I call "noodbloei" (in Dutch = "emergency" or "distress" 
blossoming or fruiting) of parasitic and/or saprotrophic wood degrading 
macrofungi during our field trips in The Netherlands in the second half of 
the 1990's while introducing Claus into the "world of fungi".

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