UKTC Archive

RE: Ganoderma applanatum/australe on n.maple - implications

Subject: RE: Ganoderma applanatum/australe on n.maple - implications
From: Viper Snake
Date: Dec 30 2011 15:40:26

 
Dear Luke,
 
1) Pearce 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1996.tb01842.x/abstract

1) The article was published in the same year, the Dutch version of my 
Encyclopaedia of Fungi came out and I decided to refrain from integrating the 
research findings in the chapters on wood degrading saprotrophic and 
parasitic macrofungi for the following reasons :
- The model for "the protection and defense of xylem tissues in woody 
angiosperms is largely based upon results from studies of host-pathogen 
interactions in the wood of Acer pseudoplatanus", a tree species associated 
with a only few of the about 140 cosmopolitan generalistic endomycorrhizal 
microfungi, for which colonisation the tree roots have to compete with the 
roots of grasses and most other green plants, including some other tree 
species, and of which is documented, that they are less effective in 
facilitating the defensive system of the tree than ectomycorrhizal macrofungi 
and especially the co-evolved tree species specific symbionts are.
- On top of that, because Acer species lack ectomycorrhizal symbionts and 
have just a few tree species specific parasitic and saprotrophic macrofungi 
and insects, sycamores have one of the least developed tree species specific 
ecosystems and a relatively short life cycle, implicating that the model can 
not be applied or generalised to the far more complex tree species specific 
ecosystems of tree species such as Quercus and Fagus, which respectively have 
about 47 and 45 co-evolved tree species specific ectomycorrhizal symbionts 
and another 91 ectomycorrhizal macrofungi shared between them, about 33 and 
26 tree species specific parasitic and saprotrophic macrofungi and another 19 
parasitic and saprotrophic macrofungi shared between them and about 423 and 
98 tree species specific insects as part of their ecosystems, most of which 
are playing a significant role in the tree species specific life cycles.
- And as my book and research will focus on endemic European tree species 
associated with (tree species specific) ectomycorrhizal macrofungi, I will 
again not integrate the findings of Pearce in my future publications.

2) Boddy and Rayner 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1983.tb04871.x/abstract

2) Adding to the research by Boddy and Rayner. Although both ecto- and 
endomycorrhizal macro- and microfungi need 20 % more oxygen than tree roots 
do to grow and survive and that's why mycorrhizae are very vulnerable for 
soil compaction, there's one genus of pioneer ectomycorrhizal macrofungi that 
lives and survives under (almost complete) anaerobic circumstances, the genus 
Alnicola (= Naucoria), of which about 8 species are associated with Alnus, 2 
with Salix and 3 species are shared between them, that have the oxygen 
delivered from within by the roots they colonise. 
 
Regards,
Gerrit                                    


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